Skin Biology – A New Approach to the Central Issue of Cosmetics
Prof. Leonhard Zastrow
In recent years, our knowledge of the skin’s structure and function has rapidly increased. Insights into the complex processes of physiological skin aging due to extrinsic or intrinsic reasons, of premature skin aging and of pathological changes such as skin cancer are published in more and more detail. If we consider the skin not only as „the largest human organ“ but as an interface between the organism and the environment and if we take the findings of interface chemistry and interface physics duly into account, new approaches are opening up.
This refers particularly for the inner phases that the various dermal layers are forming among each other. The following questions have to be considered: How is the energy supply of the skin arranged? How are, e.g., the defense systems against radiation, particulates and bacteria organized and where are they localized? How is the defense capacity systemically maintained? Are external systems, creams, lotions etc., capable of compensating any systemic undersupply and, if so, how? Chemical signal-generating molecules, specifically free radicals should be investigated for their role in skin aging and carcinogenesis. Where and on which conditions do they become effective? The presentation is about this new approach and describes first consequences for skin cosmetics and medicine.
Ultrastructural Immune Localization of Corneous and Junctional Proteins in the Human Hair
Prof. Lorenzo Alibardi
Transmission electron microscopy coupled to immunogold allow a fine localization of proteins involved in cornification and cell cohesion in the human hair, despite cornification alters or hide antigens to the binding with specific antibodies. The immunodetection of keratins and some associated structural and functional proteins involved in the process of hair cornification has been done, allowing to determine their precise localization in the different hair compartments, ORS, IRS, cuticle, cortex and medulla.
The ultrastructural localization of keratins of type I and II, K17, sulfur-rich KAPs, involucrin, loricrin and isopeptide-bonds, desmogleins, plakophilins and beta-catenin, and of the main enzymes involved in cornification such as transglutaminase, sulfydryl oxidase and caspase 14, is presented. Immunodetection of telomerase indicates cell proliferation in the hair bulb and ORS.
The study evidences the progressive loss of immunoreactivity to most proteins from the keratogenous to the consolidation zone of the developing hair where cornification is completed. The mature hair shaft is chemically and physically resistant and ensures endurance and functionaly to the hair exposed on the epidermal surface.
Natural Cosmetics – Facts and Fictions
Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Reinhard H.H. Neubert
In the last years, intensive efforts have been stepped up in research, marketing and commerce to generate natural cosmetic products.
Therefore, the state of the art concerning natural cosmetics is presented and discussed in this lecture starting with the definition of the natural cosmetic actives and excipients. The differences in between natural actives and excipients and the semisynthetic ones are presented and discussed. The challenge in the field of the natural is the search for natural surfactants. Some examples are presented.
The advantages of natural cosmetic actives are discussed and critically evaluated. Phytoceramides and moistening plant extracts are presented as examples for natural cosmetic actives.
The requirements are presented which are necessary to characterize and standardize the natural cosmetic actives and excipients. Furthermore, methods are presented which can be used in order to optimize the natural cosmetic formulations concerning performance as well as stability and release of the cosmetic actives. The challenges in this concern are both the preservation of the natural cosmetic formulations based on natural preservative agents and the packaging of the formulations using natural materials.
At the end, a comprehensive concept of natural cosmetic formulations is presented based on natural cosmetic actives as well as excipients.
Shielding the Skin
From Air Pollution to Sun Exposure: Shielding the Skin Against Environmental Threats
Prof. Dr. med Jean Krutmann
Skin aging results from an interplay of intrinsic (e.g. genetic) and extrinsic factors. In recent years it has been appreciated that extrinsic skin aging is not merely due to chronic exposure of human skin to ultraviolet (UVB and A) radiation, but that wavelengths beyond UV, e.g. in the visible and near infrared range contribute as well. In addition, population-based cohort studies have clearly shown that chronic exposure to selected air pollutants such as traffic-related particulate matter, soot, nitrogen oxide and ozone is associated with an increased manifestation of skin aging traits, e.g. pigment spots or wrinkles.
In this presentation I will review (i) the epidemiological evidence supporting these conclusions, (ii) mechanistic studies employing ex vivo and in vivo human skin models to study the potential cause/effect relationship between air pollution and skin aging, (iii) and how such models can be used to identify cosmetic actives to effectively shield human skin against such threats. I will also discuss very recent studies which suggest that different environmental factors including distinct wavelengths present in solar radiation as well as defined air pollutants can influence each other and that this interaction is relevant for skin health, and that gene/environment interactions are critically involved in aging of human skin.
Ethnics – Cosmetic around the World
Cosmetics around the World
Dr. Frédéric Leroy
Beauty is a universal quest. But its translation and its concrete demonstrations, and in particular cosmetic products, are diverse, and could vary strongly from a continent to the other one. Cosmetics, the science of the beauty, has always adapted itself to this diversity.
Multiple factors explain these variations, among which we find the cultural differences between the differences regions of the world, but also the specific needs linked to the ethnic origins of the populations. Indeed, the skin and the hair are not uniform throughout the world. The curliness of hair, the early signs of the ageing of the skin for example are linked originally ethnic, and it seems obvious that hair or skin care products adapted to every typology will be different. These local characteristics led to specific routines and very different cosmetic habits.
We can believe that the globalization and the strong influence of certain models (western, Japanese) are going to drive a decrease of the differences and to a standardization of cosmetics. But in fact that's not the case, unlike new specificities appear locally as for example the influence of the environment on the properties of hair and skin, and which requires the design of products specifically adapted to local problems.
If cosmetics is now totally globalized, the range of cosmetic products will become more and more specific at the local needs.
Delivery Systems – How Deep is Your Effect?
Delivery Systems for Skin Penetration
Prof. Samir Mitragotri
Delivery of actives into skin, in spite of its inherent advantages, is limited to low molecular weight drugs due to the barrier properties of stratum corneum. Stratum corneum allows penetration of only small and hydrophobic actives in necessary quantities. The emerging landscape of actives on the other hand comprises macromolecules such as proteins, peptides, antibodies and nucleic acids. Our laboratory is investigating various chemical and physical means of increasing skin permeability to such actives in a painless and patient-compliant way. These methods include devices such as ultrasound and liquid jets, chemical means such as ionic liquids and biological means such as peptides. Physical methods temporarily disrupt the skin in a painless way or provide an active mode of drug transport. Chemical methods offer means to formulate the active or permeabilize the skin without inducing irritation. Finally, the biological methods provide opportunities for enhanced local drug delivery. Collectively, these technologies offer various advantages including delivery of macromolecules, sustained release and targeted delivery. I will present an overview of these technologies and their commercial as well as clinical translation.
Decorative Cosmetics – Understanding Global Market Trends and why Products and Brands Resonate with Today’s Consumers
Dr. Victoria Fraser
Have you ever considered the roots of modern cosmetics and how they were adopted by the beauty connoisseurs of their age? Eugene Rimmel created the first mascara in the early 1860’s, in fact, the word 'rimmel' means mascara in many languages. At the start of the 20th century Max Factor was the authority on theatrical make-up for film and converted it into main stream products. In the 1960’s CoverGirl was celebrated for engaging with teenagers. But why was make up important to the women of these eras, and how does this compare to today?
In this talk we will take a journey through some high points of cosmetics history, comparing make up products of the past with the market today – giving context for the market dynamics we currently see and what it takes to win. We will also explore the social context of make up now, and the increasing burden to look good, driven by our hunger for digital perfection. The talk will also touch on Coty’s outlook on the positioning of cosmetics products and brands in the future, including their social function and format.
Recent Developments in Sensory Methods
Dr. Hal MacFie
Sensory Science provides a detailed description of the sensory properties of foods, beverages and personal products and links this data to analytical and instrumental data and liking data from consumer studies. These properties may be measured using trained sensory assessors or naïve consumers. We will describe recent developments under the following headings:
Rapid methods using naive consumers: Examples of these methods are: • Check all that apply (CATA) scales instead of rating scales • Projective Mapping – respondents place products on a map and mark their own descriptors • Free sorting of products followed by freely selected descriptors • Temporal Dominance (TDS) where respondents simply note which attribute is dominant continuously throughout a consumption sequence.
Emotional reactions before during and after consumption: There are many ways to measure emotions and we will review the most widely used. The emotional and sensory measures towards products assessed blind can be compared with those when the brand packaging is present (informed) or when the only the packaging is present (expected). This enables us to enable maximise congruence between sensory properties and brand attributes which has been shown to be a crucial element in successful product development.
Context and external factors: A substantial literature now quantifies how many external aspects of product use and consumption affect consumer’s perception of the sensory experience. Simple reading of concept descriptions has been replaced by viewing brand packaging in an immersive condition. Most recently the use of Virtual Reality equipment to manipulate context is being adopted.
Beyond Liking: Several papers have documented the poor relation between observed liking scores collected in a Central Location trial to subsequent sales performance. Measures that are more predictive of consumer choice and more particularly repurchase are being tested. A crucial component in repurchase is memory and sensory researchers are exploring which odours are most effective in generating good and/or strongly held memories.
Causal, Path, Artificial Intelligence and Bayesian Modelling: The need to derive complex path models that describe causal relations between composition, sensory, emotion, liking, choice and repurchase is now urgent. The prospects for Artificial Intelligence to improve our modelling and Bayesian methods to improve our decision making are not clear but work is beginning.